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Den är väldigt intressant och handla om bubblor (lol)
Vibrationer, bastun och Nitroxyd värkar förebygga bubblor ordentligt...
här är artikeln, på "krånglad" engeska

Report Events
Convention DAN Europe to Cantù
Studies advance you of underwater fisiopatologia on the field and last it turns out you of the search on the emergency on the immersion
of Laura Browns
More and more sub succeeding from the DAN Europe is attracted from’the Search on the Emergency dell Immersion (DSL- Diving Safety Research) capacity ahead with. L’last confirmation has arrived 28 fridays March 2008, to Cantù,
province of Como, where approximately 300 sub Browns, president dell International DAN have participated to the convention, held from’prof. Alexander, on the topic Studies Advances you of Underwater Fisiopatologia on the Field.

L’event has been organized with l’aid of Riccardo D’Angel, the Scuba&Co Diving Center, and previewed, for the morning following,’an immersion on the Lago of Como with successive collection of data and Doppler survey. 50 sub they are dipped and subordinates to the examinations. Pieri maximum, coordinator of search DAN, has prepared the field with l’aid of voluntary others sub, recruited between the participants to the convention: Fabio Vario, Silvia Galliums, Francesca Roccaro, Claudia Ribaldi and Laura Colzano. The procedure has been simplified thanks remarkablly all’uses of the most practical ARK (Advanced Research Kit), than in one small suitcase equipment necessary for’the examinations contains all l to carry out (Doppler, ematocrito, impedenziometria, test of urines and even indirect measurement of the nitric Not-oxide production).

“We are transforming the divers in true and own investigators on the field. If we have many reliable ones and very it trains binders “to you of data”, we can analyze real information and not of laboratory, for this your aid is indispensable!”. Therefore beginning of its presentation has started Alexander Browns with. The reason of the evening was just that one of giving the last modernizations on turns out you of the search, obtained thanks to the thousands of dives that divers have recorded and donated to laboratory DSL of the DAN Europe.
In particolar way, in this occasion, they have been rendered famous turns out to you dell’important event happend to Tronzano, on the Greater Lake the 30 september 2006, to which they had participated to the search square Italian-Belgian of the DAN Europe, the CNR of Pisa and more than 100 divers.

When it is spoken about emergency in immersion, one of the first things that come in mind regards the tables of gone back and decompression, and is just from that prof. the Browns are party, going here a little behind in the history until the first tables of immersion of John Scott Haldane.
Haldane was an English physiologist who worked for the British Navy and is “the father” of the tables Royal Navy and LAST Navy. In 1904 told that the underwater ones can go back fastly until a depth in which the pressure is half of that caught up principle without to incur in MDD. Passed the time of degassing, relationship 2:1 can be still applied; the diver can therefore still go back until half of the pressure and therefore until the surface. Therefore the offgasing cycle worked. In the same period, Sir Leonard Hill, an other famous and teaching scientist of physiology near the London Hospital, experienced one theory alternative: to difference of the gone back one to stages of Haldane, Hill proposed one gone back to delineate in one underwater bell.
Using of the sheep like guinea-pigs for the experiment, Hill tried to demonstrate in practical the its theory to Haldane. After some days and the loss of various animals, was clearly that the theory of Hill did not work and that one of Haldane yes. The Royal Navy and Navy of the United States have used the theory of Haldane in order more than 50 years in order to formulate the underwater tables. But what we make today in truth? A deep immersion to 30 meters or more, then one gone back to delineate to 9-10 meters to the minute, with eventually one pause of 3-4´ to 3 - 6 meters, virtually one Hill table!
Therefore, we could not perhaps wait for cases to us of indicated MDD like from the demonstration of Haldane to Hill approximately hundred years ago? What happened to the theory of Haldane? Why we have apparently abandoned it? Where are ended the stages of depths demanded from the theory of relationship 2:1?
A lot of all that is happened because the LAST Navy thought that for the fast woven ones (than they are saturated in 5 or 10 minuteren) was possible to apply higher relationships of decompression, until 4:1. Today this appears less probable for the immersions, short, deep and, often, quadrants that the underwater sportswomen make of usual. Haldane understood clearly that a sub it must have sufficient time to degassing gradually after an immersion. It believed moreover that the only effective way was making of the stages, not only to 6 meters, but also as an example to 15, when laughed them from 30 meters: to only slow down the gone back one, as Hill suggested, does not seem to be sufficient. Moreover, the stages must last to concur enough with the woven ones completely saturate (as an example the spinal marrow to you, than it is thought has a time of emisaturation of 12,5 minutes), of sufficiently degassing, before proceeding in the gone back one.

The square of search of the DAN Europe has studied the variable ones of the speed of gone back and the effects of stages to 6 meters only, or 15 and 6 meters, after immersions to 25 and 30 meters within the emergency curve. It is interesting to notice that, until today, one of the immersion profiles that have determined the formation of the highest number than bubbles (measured with Doppler survey), have been that one with one gone back to delineate to the speed of 3 meters to the minute, without stages. Haldane would be satisfied that, after 100 years, still a time has demonstrated to the validity della its theory respect to that one of Hill

However, in spite of the decompression tables they have been wide modified in the last vent' years, concurring short times of bottom much of originates them LAST Navy, the general incidence of the disease from decompression, in the population of the underwater sportswomen is changed much little. The recent introduction of the underwater computers has not even had a meaningful impact on the underwater accidents. The cases of disease from decompression remain rather constant in the time and the distribution for sex, age and training between the underwater ones.
“Here because c’is need to collect a great number of real data”, it asserts prof. Browns, “the data on the cases of incidents I decompressed to you, it records to you in the course of a systematic collection of data from migliaia and migliaia of normal immersions they are indispensable in order to analyze to the real incidence and the causes of the MDD nell’sport immersion”.
From 1995 to 2007, DAN Europe Research has more collected than 39.000 monitorate immersions sport
with collection of profiles, questionnaires, Doppler recordings. The first lampante result is that, still, 57.6% of the incidents from decompression are happened in immersions without ally by marriage procedural errors!
The main problem seems to be the profile of the gone back one, than often it appears also too much short: the Doppler indices more elevate to you are observe to you after the immersion without pauses in gone back or with the single one “safety stop”. With l’introduction of a deep stop of 2,5 minuteren to 15 meters (for’an immersion of 25 minuteren to 25-30 meters of bottom), the production of bubbles is virtually absent, particularly for the gone back speed of of 10 mt/min

For being surer, moreover, like demonstrated from the examinations parallels to the Doppler survey, enough not to respect the rules of gone back, but there are of the physiological factors of our organism of which it must hold account. This has been according to argument introduced from the Prof. the Browns, than without to come down in too much specific scientific details, it has illustrated what can be made in order to diminish the MDD risk ulteriorly.

1. to make sure of drink and being very hydrates before immersion to you: many divers deal for MDD are turn out to you to you dehydrate to you. A lessening of liquids in the blood cause an increase of the specific weight of the same blood and a landslide of the superficial tension that contrasts the increase of the bubbles.
2. Under particular stimuli, our organism produces NOT – nitric oxide – that acts as from protecting with veindilatation and endotelial integrity (endothelium is the woven one that it upholsters the inner of ours is gone blood). If it is gone blood they expand is more difficult that the bubbles remain you caught and l’protecting action of does not contrast, moreover, l’adhesion of the bubbles to the endoteliale wall and the damages that this can provoke. They are still in study of the procedures times is to stimulate the protecting production NOT and other substances, than to reduce the physical presence of gaseous bubbles in circle. For hour it has been demonstrated that one vibration total body pre-immersion, door to the depletion of the gaseous micronucleous and to one they meaningful reduction post-immersion, regarding equal profiles without pre-vibration (preliminary reduction of the gaseous nuclei in order to optimize the decompression); while total body pre-dive heating (a heating total of the underwater one in sauna, until 65°), stimulates NOT and the HSP (Heat Protein Shock), a protein that protects the cells from external damages (Study of the possible factors of protection from the damage caused from the gaseous bubbles).

Finally prof. the Browns have introduced the program “Immersions” that render possible to all the underwater ones to help the search. This innovative software, created from Mario Giuseppe Leonardi and subsequently developed, like instrument of search, with to DAN Europe, it not only concurs to send the own profiles of immersion records to you from whichever underwater computer, but it works from true and logbook just electronic: beyond to the files produced from the underwater computers the program it is in a position to enclosing and reproducing also files audio the products from the Doppler detectors; in more, it is possible to insert, with simple click on the profile dell’an immersion, the surveys it acclimatizes them or biological underwater it carries out to you through photo or filmati video and to use a system of classification of the organisms it meets to you. In more, all the data send you to the collection center or memorizza you in the registries of the computer are organize to you for being express use you in Systems Informed to you Geographic (G.I.S.) and therefore they can directly be imports to you and immediately it visualizes to you in geographic shape in programs of cartography electronic (comprised Microsoft® MapPoint). The program comes constantly dawned with the collaboration of the instructors and the underwater users of the same program. From the moment of its presentation today already they have been very published 30 migliorative versions realized in order to apply the suggestions of the users The modernization to the new versions happens with automatic modality.

As he is usual healthy prof. the Browns: “ clear waters to all you!”

Giuliano Carta
Giuliano Carta 2008-05-05 16:40:50
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