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Table of Contents

Foreword
(Jim Stevenson)

Acknowledgments
A Message From the NSS-CDS (Kelly Jessop)
From The Editors (Jill Heinerth)
A New Paradigm (Bill Oigarden)

I: TIMELINE

About The Editors – Jill Heinerth and Bill Oigarden

Cave Diving History
(Bill Oigarden & Kelly Jessop)
1893
1894
1922
1934
1935
1936
1945
1946
1953
November 15, 1955 –June 1, 1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

Finding Cave Diver Training In The 1970s
(Bill Oigarden)
Lectures
Water Work for Cave Diving Course Open Water Work
Cave Dives for Full Cave
Individual Dive Objectives
Epilogue
About The Author
Contact Information
Geology of Caves and Karst
Introduction
Cave Forming Rock Types
Types of Caves
Cave Formation
Vadose vs Phreatic Theory
Hydrology of Underwater Caves
Introduction
The Karst Process
Conclusion
About The Author
Contact Information

II: THE CAVE

Geology of Caves and Karst
(Jerry Murphy, MS)
Cave Forming Rock Types
Types of Caves
Cave Formation
Vadose vs Phreatic Theory
Hydrology of Underwater Caves
Introduction
The Karst Process
Conclusion
About The Author
Contact Information
A Short History of The NSS-CDS

Cave Diving and Conservation Hydrogeology
(Todd Kincaid, PhD)
About The Author
Contact Information

The Fauna and Conservation of Submerged Cave Systems
(Jill Yager, PhD)
Adaptation to Cave Life
Common Aquatic Cave Life
- Bacteria
- Cave Shrimp
- Amphipods
- Isopods
- Ostracodes
- Thermosbaenaceans
- Remipedes
- Blind Cave Fish
- Bats
Cave Conservation
Drinking Water Supply
Sewage Disposal
Garbage and Trash Disposal
Mangrove Forests
About The Author
Contact Information

Biology of Underwater Caves
(Tom Iliffe, PhD)
- Remipedes
- Thermosbaenaceans
- Mictaceans
- Spelaeogriphaceans
- Bochusaceans
- Copepods
- Ostracods
- Mysids
- Isopods
- Amphipods
- Decapods
- Fish
- Salamanders
References and Further Reading
About The Author
Contact Information

Conservation
(Jeffrey Bozanic, PhD)
Introduction
Surface Zone
Dry Cave Zone
Wet Cave Zone
Conservation Efforts
Conclusion
Contact Information

III: BLUEPRINT

Basic Equipment for Cave Diving
(Jill Heinerth)
Air Supply
Mask
Fins
Buoyancy
Harness System
Gas Delivery
Exposure Suits
Lights
Reels
Information Systems
Knife
Directional Markers
Decompression Cylinders
Contact Information

Modern Lights for Cave Diving
(Lamar Hires)
Lighting – Primary and Backup Lights
Backup Lights
About The Author
Contact Information

Use of Guidelines
(Jill Heinerth)
Guideline Emergencies
Entanglement
Broken Line
Lost Line
Lost Buddy
Critical Skills to Practice
About The Author
Contact Information

Propulsion Techniques
(Kelly Jessop)
- Frog Kick
- Modified Flutter
- Shuffle Kick
- Pull and Glide
- Ceiling Pushoff
- Diver Propulsion Vehicles (DPV)
About The Author
Contact Information

Gas Supply Management
(Jill Heinerth)
Equipment Configuration and Associated Benefits and Concerns
Avoiding Gas Supply Emergencies
In-Water Pre-Dive checks
The Thirds Rule
Dissimilar Tank Volumes
Dissimilar Tank Volume Conversion
Rebreathers and Mixed Teams
Contact Information

Open Circuit and Rebreather Gas Management
(Kevin Gurr)
About The Author
Contact Information

The Debate Over Doing It Right
(Jarrod Jablonski)
Doing It Right Philosophy
- Unified Team
- Preparation
- Physical Fitness
DIR Equipment Configuration
- DIR Overview
- Minimalism and The Streamlined Diver
- DIR – Donating From One’s Mouth
- The Harness and Backplate
- Buoyancy Compensators
- Mask
- Dive Lights
- Guideline Devices
- Reserve Lights
Conclusion
About The Author
Contact Information

IV: THE MIND

Accident Analysis
(Jeffrey Bozanic, PhD)
Introduction
Five Rules of Accident Analysis
#1 Training:
#2 Guideline:
#3 Thirds Rule:
#4 Deep Diving:
#5 Lights:
Other Contributory Causes
- Table 1: Contributory Causes of Cave Diving Fatalities
Inappropriate Gas Mixtures
New Technology
Medical Problems
Equipment Maintenance
Solo Diving
Skill Maintenance
Event Cascades
Trends and Issues
Conclusion
About The author
Contact Information

Accident Analysis
(Lamar Hires)
Accident Analysis
The Five Rules of Accident Analysis
- 1. Training
- 2. Guidelines
- 3. Gas Management
- 4. Deep Diving In Caves
- 5. Lights and Equipment
Contact Information

Survival Psychology
(David Sawatzky, MD)
Contact Information

Psychobiology of Cave Divers
(Bill Oigarden, LMHC)
Bill’s Ph.D Dissertation Abstract:
Contact Information

Who Do You Want to Dive With?
(Bill Oigarden, LMHC)
Types of Cave Divers
- Exploration
- Technical
- Driven / Passionate
- Lifelong / Lifestyle
- Recreational
- Sump / Cold Water
- Solo
- Cave Diving Instructor
Warning: Cave Diving Is Deceptively Difficult
About The Author
Contact Information

Team Diving: Methods and Motivations
(Mark Messersmith & Todd Leonard)
Roles and Responsibilities
Standardization
Equipment
Gas Mixtures
Methodology
Dive Planning
Results
About The Author
Mark Messersmith
Contact Information
Todd Leonard
Contact Information
Global Underwater Explorers Mission Statement

V: THE BODY

Fitness and Dive Safety
(Cameron L Martz, ACSM H/FL)
Fick’s Law of Diffusion
Henry’s Law
The Evidence
General Fitness
Body Mass Index
Body Composition
Maximal Oxygen Uptake
Stating The (Not So) Obvious
How to Exercise for Better Deco
What about Strength Training?
About The Author
Contact Information

Inert Gas Narcosis
(Hal Watts)
Inert Gas Narcosis
Nitrogen Narcosis Symptoms & Signs
About The Author
Contact Information

Nitrox for Cave Dives
(Larry Collins)
NOAA Oxygen Partial Pressure & Exposure Time Limits
- General Rules
- 1. Physiologic Advantage
- 2. Extend Bottom Time
- 3. Shorten Decompression
- 4. Travel Gas
Mixing EANX
Analyzing EANX
About The Author
Contact Information

Mixed Gas and Decompression Diving
(Claudia Milz, MBA, PhD)
Expertise
Max, The Diver
Necessary Components
Obtaining Basic Knowledge
Prerequisites: Information Gathering and Training
Word of Mouth
Training
Manuals
Historic Books and Air Diving
Getting to The Point
Special Considerations
Applying Diving Physics
Applying Diving Physiology
Oxygen Toxicity
Inert Gas Narcosis
Helium Concerns
Decompression and Gas Planning
Oxygen Usage Ranges
Acceptable Narcosis
Real Life Issues
Normal Planned Dive Option
Emergency Included Option
Resources & Gas
Utility, Risk, and Preferences
Decompression Program Use
Logistics of Trimix
Remote Conditions
Hands-On Procedures
Special Considerations
References
About The Author
Contact Information

Hypothermia and Cave Diving
(David Sawatzky, MD)
About The Author
Contact Information

Thermal Protection and Diving
(David Sawatzky, MD)
Contact Information

Women and Technical Diving
(Jill Heinerth)
Risk of Decompression Illness
Tables
Gear Issues
Immersion Diuresis
Gender Roles and Team Dynamics
About The author
Contact Information

Practical Decompression
(Jeffrey Bozanic, PhD)
Introduction
Decompression Models
Dive Tables
Deep Stops
Dive Computers
Practical Aspects
Conclusion
Contact Information

Doppler and Decompression Sickness
(David Sawatzky, MD)
How Bubbles Might Cause DCS
Are You Bubbling After A Dive?
Contact Information

VI: THE TECHNOLOGY

Dive Computers
(Gene Melton)
Introduction
Theory of Operation
Dive Computer Decompression Algorithm Requirements
Design Elements
Using A Dive Computer
Selecting A Dive Computer
Conclusion
About The Author

Computers of The Future
(Jerry Murphy & Jill Heinerth)

Decompression Models
(Gene Melton)
Introduction
Decompression Model Overview
Haldane/Bühlmann
DCIEM
RGBM/VPM
Tissue Compartments and Halftimes
Linear Decompression
Stage Decompression
Stage Decompression Algorithm Implementation
Shallow Stops
Deep stops
Pyle stops
Modified Bühlmann
RGBM/VPM
Decompression Tables and Computers
Decompression Tables
Trimix Dive Computers
Conclusion
- References

DPV Use In Caves
(Paul Heinerth)
Cave Diver DPV Prerequisites
DPV Cave Course
- Duration and Lecture Topics
- Classroom Presentations
Cave Conservation
Pros and Cons of DPV Use In Caves
- a) Pros
- b) Cons
Mental and Physical Diver Fltness
Gas Management Issues
DPV Cave Techniques
Emergency Situations
- Problems and Solutions
- Mechanical Issues
About The Author
Contact Information

Cave Photography and Travel
(Jill Heinerth)
Use A Model
Think about Light
Know The Capabilities of Your Gear
Murphy’s Law of Strobes
Lenses
Modern Cameras
Advanced Lighting Techniques
- In The Cavern
- Single Slave Photography
- Backlighting With Slave Strobes
- Multiple Fixed Slave Strobes
- Multiple Swimming Strobes
- Painting With Strobes
- Rear Curtain Sync
Logistics of Foreign Shoots
Customs
Work Visas
Packaging
Baggage Restrictions
Insurance
Selling Your Work
Contact Information

My Journey Into Underwater Photography
(Harvey Boyd)

Getting The Shot
(Jill Heinerth)
Lighting Up A Model
Illuminating A Big Space
Contact Information

VII: THE JOURNEY

Initial Explorations of New Caves
(Cindy Butler)
Basic Cave-Finding Gear
Diving Gear
- Helmet With Lights
- Silt Screws
- Line Arrows
- Large Slate and Compass
- Harnesses
- Tanks
- Gas
Solo Diving
Special Hints for Exploration
Exploration Courtesy
About The Author
Contact Information

Ridge-Walking and Locating Caves Utilizing Gps Technology
(Brian Williams)
What Is GPS?
How It Works
How Accurate Is GPS?
Which Unit Is Right for You?
Exploration and GPS
GPS Resources
A Word about Ethics
In Closing
About The Author
Contact Information

Landowner Relations
(Mike Poucher)
About The Author
Contact Information

Dive Referencing
(Guy Bryant)
About The Author
Contact Information

Introduction to Maps
(Mike Poucher)
Elements of Maps
- Underwater Shorthand
The British Cave Research Association Grading System
- Grade 1
- Grade 2
- Grade 3
- Grade 4
- Grade 5
- Class A
- Class B
- Class C
- Class D
About The Author
Contact Information

Remote Or Expeditionary Cave Diving
(Ann Kristovich, DDS & Jim Bowden)
Project Overview and History
About The Authors

CyberDiving
(Russell Edge)
About The Author
Contact Information

Tips for Traveling Divers
(Pete Nawrocky)
Dive Bag
Photographers
Site Prep
Specialties
About The Author
Contact Information
Top Travel Tips for Cave Divers (Jill Heinerth)

VIII: THE MISSION

Cold Water Cave Diving
(Ron Simmons)
About The author

A Blueprint for Rebreather Diving
(Jill Heinerth)
Training
Pre-Dive Checks
Decision to Dive
Fitness
Contingency
- Gas Planning
- Decompression Planning
- Rehearsal
- Team Planning
Are You A Survivor?
Mixed Teams
- Gas Planning
- Modified S-Drill
Conclusions
Contact Information

Rebreathers and Cave Diving
(Jeffrey Bozanic, PhD)
Introduction
Training
Rebreather Differences
- Equipment
- Penetration Limits
Oxygen supply
One Hour Rule Example (Oxygen):
Diluent Supply
Absorbent
Battery Life
Emergency Procedures
Open Circuit Bailout
Open Circuit Dive Buddies
Conclusion
Contact Information

Side Mount Cave Diving for The Independent Diver
(Brian Kakuk)
Why Side Mount?
Back mount vs. Side mount
Weights and Balances
Lights
Independent Side Mounted Gas Supply
Moving Forward
Contact Information

Sidemount Diving
(Jason Richards)
Contact Information
Sidemount Skills

Blue Holes of The Caribbean
(Brian Kakuk)
Inland and Marine Blue Holes
Inland Blue holes
Marine Blue Holes
Special Considerations for Marine Blue Hole Diving
- Gloves
- Guideline
- Inspection of Guidelines
- Decompression Areas
Other Considerations- Boat Dives
- Weather Considerations
- Anchoring
- Emergency Procedures/Evacuation
- Boat Access to The Site
About The Author
Exploration
Research and Conservation
Contact Information

Stage Diving
(Ward Beecher)

Low Visibility Diving
(Al Heck)
Motivation for Low Visibility Diving
Don’t Exceed Your Comfort Level
Incrementalism
Buoyancy Control
Equipment and Equipment Techniques
Buddy Techniques
Summary

A Quick Guide to Sump Exploration
(Forrest Wilson)
Introduction
Planning
Equipment
Getting There
Diving
Beyond The Sump
About The Author

Intro to Sump Diving
(Joe Kaffl)
Sump Diving Equipment
Sump Diving Techniques
The Fine Points of Line-Laying
Training Drills
Gas Management
Passing Restrictions
Reading Sumps
Surveying
Limiting Impact to The Cave
Gear Transport
Deco Considerations
Lessons Learned
Locating Sites and Cave Politics
Maintaining Landowner Relationships
Final Safety Thoughts
Conclusion
Glossary
About The Author
Contact Information

Putting It All Together for Sump Diving
(Ron Simmons)
Hauling Gear
Prepping At The Sump
Other Considerations
Camping Inside
Exploration Beyond
Accidents
Surveying
Solo Diving
Conservation
About The Author

Sump Diving
(Jason Richards)
Purpose
Planning
Proper Equipment – Tanks
Harness
Regulators
Lights
Thermal Protection
Other Equipment
The Approach
Performance

APPENDIX

Simple Formulae for Cave Diving
(Jill Heinerth)
Converting Pressure to Depth
Converting Depth to Pressure
Determining The Maximum Operating Depth for A Breathing Gas
Selecting The Best Nitrox Mix for A Dive
Determining The Oxygen Partial Pressure (PO2) In A Gas Mixture
Dalton’s Law
Determining Your Gas Consumption
Determining Oxygen Limits
Calculating Residual Oxygen Toxicity
Calculating Long-Term Oxygen Exposure
Determining The Volume of Gas In Tanks (Imperial)

Diving Emergency?

Cave Diving Section of The National Speleological Society Membership Application and Renewal Form
NSS Policy for Cave Conservation

Index




Pär Ahlgren
Pär Ahlgren 2009-03-13 08:59:42
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Huvudinlägg Recension "CAVE DIVING – ARTICLES & OPINIONS" Pär Ahlgren 2009-03-13 08:54
svara Kort beskrivning av författarna i Cave DivingPär Ahlgren2009-03-13 08:56
svara Fullständig innehållsförteckning för intresseradePär Ahlgren2009-03-13 08:59
svara Sv: Recension "CAVE DIVING – ARTICLES & OPINIONS"Jonas Pavletic2009-03-22 13:08

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