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FOREWORD

PREFACE

CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

1 HISTORY OF DIVING AND NOAA CONTRIBUTIONS
1.0 GENERAL
1.1 FREE (BREATH-HOLD) DIVING
1.2 DIVING BELLS
1.3 HELMET (HARD-HAT) DIVING
1.4 SCUBA DIVING
1.5 SATURATION DIVING
1.5.1 Saturation Diving Systems
1.5.2 Habitats
1.5.3 Lock-Out Submersibles
1.6 NOAA’S DIVING PROGRAM
1.7 UNDERSEA AND DIVING RESEARCH
1.8 SUMMARY

2 PHYSICS OF DIVING
2.0 GENERAL
2.1 PRESSURE
2.1.1 Atmospheric Pressure
2.1.2 Hydrostatic Pressure
2.1.3 Absolute Pressure
2.1.4 Gauge Pressure
2.1.5 Partial Pressure
2.2 DENSITY
2.2.1 Specific Gravity
2.3 WATER
2.3.1 Freshwater
2.3.2 Seawater
2.3.3 pH
2.4 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
2.4.1 Length
2.4.2 Area
2.4.3 Volume
2.4.4 Weight
2.5 TEMPERATURE
2.5.1 Heat
2.6 BUOYANCY (ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE)
2.7 GASES USED IN DIVING
2.7.1 Atmospheric Air
2.7.2 Oxygen (O2)
2.7.3 Nitrogen (N2)
2.7.4 Helium (He)
2.7.5 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
2.7.6 Carbon Monoxide (CO)
2.7.7 Argon (Ar), Neon (Ne), Hydrogen (H2)
2.8 GAS LAW
2.8.1 Boyle’s Law
2.8.2 Charles’ / Gay-Lussac’s Law
2.8.3 Dalton’s Law
2.8.4 Henry’s Law
2.8.5 General Gas Law
2.9 MOISTURE IN BREATHING GAS
2.9.1 Humidity
2.9.2 Condensation in Breathing Hoses or Mask
2.9.3 Fogging of the Mask
2.10 LIGHT
2.10.1 Colors
2.11 SOUND

3 DIVING PHYSIOLOGY
3.0 GENERAL
3.1 SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
3.1.1 Musculoskeletal System
3.1.2 Nervous System
3.1.3 Digestive System
3.2 RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATION
3.2.1 Process of Respiration
3.2.2 Mechanics of Respiration
3.2.3 Control of Respiration
3.2.4 Circulation
3.2.4.1 Blood Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
3.2.4.2 Tissue Gas Exchange
3.2.4.3 Tissue Use of Oxygen
3.2.5 Summary of Respiration and Circulation Processes
3.2.6 Respiratory Problems
3.2.6.1 Hypoxia
3.2.6.2 Carbon Dioxide Toxicity
3.2.6.3 Hyperventilation
3.2.6.4 Shallow Water Blackout
3.2.6.5 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
3.2.6.6 Excessive Resistance to Breathing
3.2.6.7 Lipoid Pneumonia
3.3 EFFECTS OF PRESSURE
3.3.1 Direct Effects of Pressure During Descent
3.3.1.1 Ears
3.3.1.2 Sinuses
3.3.1.3 Lungs
3.3.1.4 Eyes
3.3.2 Direct Effects of Pressure During Ascent
3.3.2.1 Lungs – Pneumothorax
3.3.2.2 Lungs – Mediastinal Emphysema
3.3.2.3 Lungs – Subcutaneous Emphysema
3.3.2.4 Arterial Gas Embolism
3.3.2.5 Stomach and Intestine
3.3.2.6 Teeth
3.3.2.7 Contact Lenses
3.3.3 Indirect Effects of Pressure During Descent
3.3.3.1 Inert Gas Narcosis
3.3.3.2 High Pressure Nervous Syndrome (HPNS)
3.3.3.3 Oxygen Toxicity
3.3.3.3.1 CNS: Central Nervous System
3.3.3.3.2 Lung and “Whole Body”
3.3.3.3.3 Variations in Tolerance
3.3.3.3.4 Benefits of Intermittent Exposure
3.3.3.3.5 Concepts of Oxygen Exposure Management
3.3.3.3.6 Prevention of CNS Poisoning
3.3.3.3.7 The “Oxygen Clock” of “O2 Limit Fraction”
3.3.3.3.8 Prevention of Lung or Whole-Body Toxicity
3.3.4 Indirect Effects of Pressure During Ascent
3.3.4.1 Inert Gas Elimination
3.3.4.2 Decompression Sickness
3.3.4.3 Treatment Tables
3.3.4.4 Failures of Treatment
3.3.4.5 Counterdiffusion
3.3.4.6 Aseptic Bone Necrosis (Dysbaric Osteonecrosis)
3.3.4.7 Patent Foramen Ovale
3.3.4.8 Pregnancy and Diving
3.4 HYPOTHERMIA / HYPERTHERMIA
3.4.1 Effects of Cold
3.4.2 First Aid for Hypothermia
3.4.3 Thermal Protection
3.4.4 Thermal Stress Irrespective of Ambient Temperature
3.4.5 Survival in Cold Water
3.4.6 Overheating and Hyperthermia
3.4.7 Types of Heat Stress
3.5 DRUGS AND DIVING
3.5.1 Prescription Drugs
3.5.2 Smoking
3.5.3 Illicit Drugs and Alcohol

4 AIR DIVING AND DECOMPRESSION
4.0 GENERAL
4.1 DECOMPRESSION TABLE DEVELOPMENT
4.1.1 Table Computation Prediction
4.1.2 Computing Decompression Tables
4.1.3 Reliability of Tables
4.1.4 Dive Planning Software
4.2 USING THE U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE TO MAKE SINGLE DIVES
4.2.1 Single Versus Repetitive Dives
4.2.2 Planning Single Dives
4.3 USING THE U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE TO MAKE REPETITIVE DIVES
4.3.1 Recording Repetitive Dive Data
4.3.2 Accounting for Residual Nitrogen
4.3.3 Finding Repetitive Group Designations Following Single, No-Decompression Dives
4.3.4 Determining a Repetitive Group Designation Following a Surface Interval
4.3.5 Determining Adjusted No-Decompression Limits for Repetitive Dives
4.3.6 Determining Repetitive Group Designations Following Repetitive Dives
4.3.7 Why Repetitive Group Designations Are Important
4.3.8 Determining the Minimum Allowable Surface Interval Between Dives
4.3.9 Exceptions to Normal Repetitive Dive Planning
4.3.10 Dealing with Surface Intervals of Less Then Ten Minutes
4.4 USING THE U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE TO MAKE STAGED DECOMPRESSION DIVES
4.4.1 What Is Decompression?
4.4.2 Decompression Diving Considerations
4.4.3 Making Mandatory Decompression Stops
4.4.4 Omitted Decompression
4.4.4.1 Omitted Decompression 1
4.4.4.2 Omitted Decompression 2
4.4.4.3 Use of Oxygen During Decompression
4.5 DEALING WITH CHANGES IN ALTITUDE
4.5.1 Diving at Altitude
4.5.1.1 Altitude Correction Procedure
4.5.1.2 Corrections of Depth of Dive
4.5.1.3 Correction for Decompression Stop Depths
4.5.1.4 Need for Correction
4.5.1.5 Depth Measurement at Altitude
4.5.1.6 Correction of Depth Gauges
4.5.1.7 Hypoxia During Altitude Diving
4.5.1.8 Altitude Sickness
4.5.1.9 Breathing Gases
4.5.1.10 Equilibration at Altitude
4.5.1.11 Repetitive Dives
4.5.1.12 Ascent to Altitude After Diving/Flying After Diving
4.6 BUILDING ADDITIONAL SAFETY FACTORS INTO DIVE TABLE USAGE
4.6.1 Remaining Well Within No-Decompression and Other Limits
4.6.2 Making Slow Ascents and Safety Stops
4.6.3 Taking Advantage of the Dive Table’s Inherent Margin of Safety on Multi-Level Dives
4.6.3.1 Reverse Profile Dives
4.6.4 Following Recommendations Concerning Cold and Arduous Dives
4.6.5 Managing Additional Risk Factors That May Contribute to Decompression Sickness
4.7 NOAA NO-DECOMPRESSION DIVE CHARTS
4.7.1 General

5 DIVER AND DIVING SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
5.0 GENERAL
5.1 BASIC EQUIPMENT
5.1.1 Face Mask
5.1.2 Snorkels
5.1.3 Fins
5.2 THERMAL PROTECTION
5.2.1 Dive Skins
5.2.2 Wet Suits
5.2.2.1 Maintenance of Wet Suits
5.2.3 Dry Suits
5.2.3.1 Dry-Suit Valves
5.2.3.2 Dry-Suit Seals and Accessories
5.2.3.3 Dry-Suit Zippers
5.2.3.4 Dry-Suit Use
5.2.3.5 Dry-Suit Underwear
5.2.3.6 Dry-Suits and Dry-Suit Underwear Maintenance
5.2.4 Hot-Water Suits and Systems
5.2.5 Suit Accessories
5.2.5.1 Gloves
5.2.5.2 Hoods
5.3 OPEN CIRCUIT SCUBA REGULATORS
5.3.1 Maintenance
5.4 EMERGENCY AIR SUPPLY
5.5 COMPRESSED AIR
5.5.1 General Safety Precautions
5.6 AIR COMPRESSORS AND FILTERING SYSTEMS
5.6.1 Maintenance
5.6.2 Carbon Monoxide Monitoring Device
5.6.3 Lubricants
5.6.4 Duties and Responsibilities
5.7 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
5.7.1 Cylinder Markings
5.7.2 High-Pressure Cylinders
5.7.3 Cylinder Inspection and Maintenance
5.7.4 Sustained Load Cracking (SLC) in 6351 Aluminum Alloy Cylinders
5.7.5 Cylinder Valve and Manifold Assembly
5.7.6 Reserve Valve
5.8 HIGH-PRESSURE AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS
5.9 BREATHING GAS BOOSTER PUMPS
5.10 SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE GAUGES
5.10.1 Use of Submersible Pressure Gauge
5.11 BUOYANCY COMPENSATORS
5.11.1 Power Inflator Mechanisms
5.11.2 Maintenance of Buoyancy Compensators
5.11.3 Weight Belts and Weights
5.11.4 Safety Harnesses
5.11.5 Safety Harness and Bail-Out Cylinder
5.12 SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING EQUIPMENT
5.12.1 Topside Breathing Gas Source
5.12.2 Diver Control Manifold
5.12.3 Communication Box
5.12.4 Umbilical
5.12.5 Full-Face Masks and Helmets
5.12.6 Maintenance of Surface-Supplied Gear
5.13 HOOKAH
5.14 DEPTH GAUGES
5.15 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
5.16 KNIVES
5.17 DIVE LIGHTS
5.18 COMPASSES AND NAVIGATION
5.19 SIGNAL DEVICES
5.20 SCOOTERS
5.21 SHARK DEFENSE
5.22 UNDERWATER SLATES
5.23 SURFACE SUPPORT/MARKER FLOAT
5.24 DIVE COMPUTERS
5.25 BOTTOM TIMERS
5.26 UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIDEO
5.26.1 Still Photography vs. Video
5.26.2 Types of Underwater Camera Systems for Still Photography
5.26.3 Light and Color
5.26.4 Electronic Flash
5.26.5 Trays and Flash Arms
5.26.6 The Image Capture Medium: Prints, Slides and Digital
5.26.7 Basic Techniques for Still Photography
5.26.8 Video Cameras and Housing
5.26.9 Basic Video Techniques
5.26.10 Camera Maintenance

6 SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING
6.0 GENERAL
6.1 SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING PROCEDURES
6.1.1 Planning the Dive
6.1.2 Selecting the Dive Team
6.1.3 Preparing for the Dive
6.1.4 Tending the Surface-Supplied Diver
6.1.5 The Dive
6.1.5.1 Ventilation
6.1.5.2 Diver Emergencies
6.1.6.1 Fouling
6.1.6.2 Blowup
6.1.6.3 Loss of Primary Air Supply
6.1.6.4 Loss of Communication or Contact with the Diver
6.1.6.5 Loss from View of Descent or Distance Line
6.1.6.6 Falling
6.1.6.7 Ascent
6.1.7 Postdive Procedures
6.1.8 Umbilical Diving from Small Boats
6.1.9 Umbilical Diving From Ships
6.1.10 Basic Air Supply Systems
6.1.11 Rates of Air Flow
6.1.12 Supply Pressure Requirements – Free-Flow Systems
6.1.13 Supply Pressure Requirements – Demand Systems

7 DIVER AND SUPPORT PERSONNEL TRAINING
7.0 GENERAL
7.1 MISSION AND PERSONNEL CERTIFICATION
7.1.1 Selection Standards
7.1.2 Physical examination
7.1.2.1 Skin
7.1.2.2 Psychiatric
7.1.2.3 Neurologic
7.1.2.4 Ophthalmologic
7.1.2.5 Otolaryngologic
7.1.2.6 Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
7.1.2.7 Oral and Dental
7.1.2.8 Pulmonary
7.1.2.9 Cardiovascular
7.1.2.10 Hematological
7.1.2.11 Gastrointestinal
7.1.2.12 Endocrinological
7.1.2.13 Musculoskeletal
7.1.2.14 Obstetric and gynecological
7.1.3 Swimming Skills
7.2 TRAINING PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
7.2.1 Scuba Training
7.2.1.1 Classroom
7.2.1.2 Pool and Open Water
7.2.2 Umbilical Dive Training
7.2.2.1 Qualification Test
7.2.3 Nitox Training
7.2.4 Saturation Training
7.2.5 Research Diver Training
7.2.6 Dive Leadership Training
7.2.7 Chamber Operator Training
7.2.8 Equipment Maintenance Training
7.2.9 Diver Medical Technician Training
7.2.10 Hyperbaric Physician Training
7.2.11 Other Training Requirements

8 DIVE PLANNING
8.0 GENERAL
8.1 DIVE PLANNING
8.1.1 Selection of Diving Equipment
8.2 Dive Team Organization
8.2.1 Divemaster
8.2.2 Diving Medical Officer / Diving Medical Technician
8.2.3 Science Coordinator
8.2.4 Divers
8.2.5 Support Divers and Other Support Personnel
8.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
8.3.1 Surface Environmental Conditions
8.3.2 Underwater Environmental Conditions
8.4 DIVING SIGNALS
8.4.1 Hand Signals
8.4.2 Surface-to-Diver Recall Signals
8.4.3 Line Signals
8.4.4 Surface Signals
8.5 AIR CONSUMPTION RATES
8.5.1 Determining Individual Air Utilization Rates
8.5.2 Scuba Duration
8.5.3 Scuba Air Requirements
8.5.4 Surface-Supplied Air Requirements

9 PROCEDURES FOR SCIENTIFIC DIVES
9.0 GENERAL
9.1 SITE LOCATION
9.1.1 Traditional Methods
9.1.2 Electronic Methods
9.2 UNDERWATER SURVEYS
9.2.1 Direct Survey Methods
9.2.2 Indirect Survey Methods
9.2.2.1 Underwater Photographic Survey
9.2.2.2 Underwater Acoustic Surveys
9.3 UNDERWATER RECORDING METHODS
9.4 BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
9.4.1 Estimating Population Densities
9.5 BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING
9.5.1 Plankton Sampling
9.5.2 Benthic Organism Sampling
9.5.3 Airlift Sampling
9.5.4 Midwater Sampling
9.5.5 Estimating Density of Planktonic Aggregations
9.6 SHELLFISH STUDIES
9.6.1 Collecting Techniques
9.7 TAGGING AND MARKING TECHNIQUES
9.8 BOTANICAL SAMPLING
9.8.1 Field Procedures
9.8.2 Macro-Photogrammetric Method
9.8.3 Herbivory Assays
9.8.4 Palatability Experiments
9.8.5 Nutrient Enrichment Assays and Primary Productivity
9.8.6 Collecting Techniques
9.8.7 Specimen Preparation and Preservation
9.9 ARTIFICIAL REEFS / HABITATS
9.10 GEOLOGY
9.10.1 Mapping
9.10.2 Sampling
9.10.3 Testing
9.10.4 Experimentation
9.11 PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY
9.11.1 Deployment, Inspection, Maintenance, and Recovery of Instruments
9.11.2 In Situ Sampling of Currents and Waves by Divers
9.11.3 Water Samples
9.11.4 Undersea Laboratories
9.12 ARCHEOLOGY
9.12.1 Site Location
9.12.2 Site Documentation
9.12.3 Site Testing
9.12.4 Partial and Full-Site Excavation
9.13 ANIMAL CAPTURE TECHNIQUES
9.13.1 Nets
9.13.2 Seines
9.13.3 Trawls
9.13.4 Diving on Stationary Gear
9.14 THE USE OF ANESTHETICS IN CAPTURING AND HANDLING FISH
9.14.1 Response to Anesthetics
9.14.2 Selecting an Anesthetic
9.14.3 Application of Anesthetics
9.14.4 Diver-Operated Devices

10 PROCEDURES FOR WORKING DIVES
10.1 SEARCH AND RECOVERY
10.1.1 Circular Search
10.1.2 Line-Tended (Fishtail) Search
10.1.3 Jackstay Search Pattern
10.1.4 Searching a Large Area
10.1.5 Tow Diving
10.1.6 Drift Diving
10.1.7 Deepwater Towbar Search
10.1.8 Cable Cross Search
10.1.9 Search Without Lines
10.1.10 Recovery
10.2 UNDERWATER NAVIGATION
10.2.1 Basic Underwater Navigation
10.2.2 Water Depth / Underwater Distance
10.2.3 Diver Navigation Board
10.2.4 Precision Underwater Navigation
10.2.5 Choosing and Converting Between Coordinate Systems
10.2.6 Post-Mission or Real-Time Coordinate System Conversions
10.2.7 Installation
10.2.8 Environmental Variables
10.2.9 Raw Position Data
10.2.10 Quality Control
10.3 INSTRUMENT PLANTATION
10.4 HYDROGRAPHIC SUPPORT
10.4.1 Hazards to Navigation
10.4.2 Locating and Measuring Least Depths
10.4.3 Resolving Sounding Discrepancies
10.5 WIRE DRAGGING
10.6 UNDERWATER TOOLS
10.6.1 Hand Tools
10.6.2 Pneumatic Tools
10.6.3 Hydraulic Tools
10.6.4 Electric Tools
10.6.5 Power Velocity Tools
10.6.6 Cutting and Welding Tools
10.7 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR TASKS
10.8 SALVAGE
10.8.1 Lifting Methods
10.8.1.1 Dead Lifting
10.8.1.2 Internal Buoyancy Lifts
10.8.1.3 External Lift Bags
10.8.1.4 Air Lifts
10.9 UNDERWATER DEMOLITION AND EXPLOSIVES
10.9.1 Types of Explosives

11 UNDERWATER SUPPORT SYSTEMS
11.0 GENERAL
11.1 UNDERWATER HABITATS
11.1.1 Saturation Diving Habitats
11.1.2 Non-Saturation Habitats
11.2 SURFACE-BASED SATURATION DIVING SYSTEMS
11.3 OPEN-BOTTOM BELL SYSTEMS
11.3.1 Description
11.3.2 Operational Parameters
11.3.3 Operational Procedures

12 DIVING UNDER SPECIAL CONDITIONS
12.0 GENERAL
12.1 GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
12.1.1 Northeast Coast
12.1.2 Mid-Atlantic Coast
12.1.3 Southeast Coast
12.1.4 Gulf of Mexico
12.1.5 Northwest Coast
12.1.6 Mid-Pacific Coast
12.1.7 Southwest Coast
12.1.8 Central Pacific Ocean
12.1.9 Arctic and Antarctic
12.1.10 Tropics
12.1.11 Diving in Marine Sanctuaries or Underwater Parks
12.2 DIVING FROM SHORE
12.2.1 Through Surf
12.2.2 Through Surf an a Rocky Shore
12.2.3 Through Shore Currents
12.2.4 From a Coral Reef
12.3 DIVING FROM A STATIONARY PLATFORM
12.4 DIVING FROM A SMALL BOAT
12.4.1 Entering the Water
12.4.2 Exiting the Water
12.5 FRESHWATER DIVING
12.5.1 Great Lakes
12.5.2 Inland Lakes
12.5.3 Quarries
12.6 OPEN-OCEAN DIVING
12.7 CORAL REEFS AND FRINGING REEFS
12.8 FAST CURRENT
12.9 CAVE DIVING
12.10 COLD-WATER DIVING
12.11 DIVING UNDER ICE
12.12 KELP DIVING
12.13 WRECK DIVING
12.14 NIGHT DIVING
12.15 DIVING IN DAMS AND RESERVOIRS
12.15.1 Diving at Dams
12.15.2 Diving at Water Withdrawal and Pumping Sites
12.16 RIVER DIVING
12.17 DIVING FROM A SHIP
12.17.1 Personnel
12.17.2 Use and Storage of Diving and Related Equipment
12.17.3 Safety Considerations
12.17.4 Diving While Under Way
12.17.4.1 Equipment for Diving While Under Way
12.17.4.2 Communication for Diving While Under Way
12.18 PINNACLE AND SEAMOUNT DIVING
12.19 DIVING IN REMOTE LOCATIONS AND ON COASTS OF DIFFICULT ACCESS
12.20 DIVING IN LOW AND ZERO VISIBILITY
12.21 NOXIOUS GAS IN BOTTOM WATER
12.22 ARTIFICIAL, EXPERIMENTAL, AND UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
12.22.1 Fish Tanks, Cages, Farms, Shellfish Rafts, Diving Within Bio-Rich Enclosures and Containers
12.22.2 Diving Around Enclosures
12.22.3 Diving Within Enclosures
12.22.4 Reactor Shielding Tank
12.22.5 Oceanographic Engineering and Scientific Diving

13 POLLUTED-WATER DIVING
13.0 GENERAL
13.1 HAZARDS
13.1.1 Biological Pollutants
13.1.2 Toxic Chemicals
13.1.3 Radioactive Substances
13.1.4 Thermal Conditions
13.2 TRAINING
13.3 EQUIPMENT
13.3.1 General
13.3.2 Full-Face Masks
13.3.3 Diving Helmets
13.3.4 Umbilicals
13.3.5 Dry Suits
13.4 POLLUTED-WATER DIVING TECHNIQUES
13.5 DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES
13.6 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
13.6.1 Resources for Consultation

14 REBREATHERS
14.0 GENERAL
14.1 TYPES OF REBREATHERS
14.1.1 Closed-Circuit Oxygen Systems
14.1.2 Semiclosed-Circuit Mixed-Gas Systems
14.1.3 Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas Systems
14.2 REBREATHER DESIGN
14.3 HOW REBREATHERS WORK
14.4 ADVANTAGES OF REBREATHERS
14.5 DISADVANTAGES OF REBREATHERS
14.6 RISK ASSOCIATED WITH REBREATHER DIVING
14.6.1 Hypoxia
14.6.2 Oxygen Toxicity
14.6.3 Hypercapnia
14.6.4 Caustic Mix
14.7 GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR REBREATHER DIVING

15 NITROX DIVING
15.1 NITROGEN-OXYGEN BREATHING MIXTURES
15.1.1 Early Use of Nitrogen-Oxygen Breathing Mixtures
15.1.2 NOAA Use of Nitrox Breathing Mixtures
15.2 MISCONCEPTIONS
15.3 TERMINOLOGY
15.4 ADVANTAGES OF NITROX
15.4.1 Repetitive Dive Example
15.5 SELECTING A NITROX MIX
15.5.1 Concerns of the Mix
15.5.2 Oxygen Exposure Time
15.5.3 Maximum Operating Depth
15.5.4 Partial Pressure of Oxygen Chart
15.5.5 Fraction of Oxygen for the Mix
15.6 DIVING TABLES
15.6.1 NOAA Nitrox Diving Tables
15.6.2 Equivalent Air Depth Principle
15.6.3 Custom Tables
15.6.4 Repetitive Dives
15.6.5 Using Repetitive Procedures
15.6.6 Diving at Altitude
15.6.7 Dive Computers and Nitrox
15.7 USING NOAA NITROX DECOMPRESSION TABLES
15.7.1 Using Fixed Tables
15.7.2 NOAA Nitrox 32% and 36% Decompression Tables
15.7.3 Application of Equivalent Air Depth and Air Tables
15.7.4 Calculating the Equivalent Air Depth
15.8 REPETITIVE DIVING
15.8.1 Repetitive Dive with the Same Gas
15.8.2 Repetitive Dive with a Different Mix
15.8.3 Omitted Decompression
15.9 PROCEDURES FOR USING NOAA NITROX DIVING TABLES
15.10 OUT OF GAS EMERGENCIES
15.10.1 Diver Within No-Stop Limits
15.10.2 Shifting to Air During a Decompression Stop
15.11 PREPARATION OF NITROX GAS MIXTURES
15.11.1 Oxygen Handling
15.11.2 The Fire Triangle
15.11.3 Air to be Mixed with Oxygen
15.11.4 Cleaning for Oxygen Service
15.11.5 Design and Technique in Using Oxygen Systems
15.12 EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS
15.12.1 Scuba Cylinders
15.12.2 Identification of Nitrox Cylinders
15.12.3 Cylinder Label for Oxygen Cleaning
15.12.4 Cylinder Labeling
15.12.5 Fill Station Log
15.13 PREPARING NITROX MIXTURES
15.13.1 Commercial Pre-Mix
15.13.2 Partial-Pressure Mixing
15.13.3 Oxygen Fill Formula
15.13.3.1 Oxygen to Add Charts
15.13.4 Continuous Flow Mixing
15.13.5 Pressure Swing Adsorption
15.13.6 Membrane Separation
15.13.7 Boosting Pressure to Scuba Cylinders
15.14 PERFORMING GAS ANALYSIS
15.14.1 Oxygen Analyzers
15.14.2 The Analysis Process
15.14.3 Analyzing Gas
15.14.3.1 Calibrating Gas
15.14.3.2 Flow Rate
15.14.3.3 Calibration
15.14.3.4 Analyzing the Nitrox Cylinder

16 MIXED-GAS AND OXYGEN DIVING
16.0 GENERAL
16.1 INERT GAS PHYSIOLOGY
16.1.1 Nitrogen and Narcosis
16.1.2 Helium
16.1.3 Other Inert Gases (Hydrogen, Neon, Argon)
16.1.4 Decompression with Special Gas Mixtures
16.2 OXYGEN PHYSIOLOGY
16.2.1 Oxygen Toxicity
16.2.2 Managing Oxygen Exposure
16.3 DIVING WITH SPECIAL GAS MIXES
16.3.1 Technical Diving
16.3.1.1 Accelerated Decompression
16.3.1.2 Diving with Trimixes of Nitrogen, Helium and Oxygen
16.3.1.2.1 Rationale and Need for Using Trimix
16.3.1.2.2 Selecting an Appropriate Trimix
16.3.1.2.3 Mixture Adjustment for Operational Considerations
16.3.1.2.4 Equivalent Narcotic Depth
16.3.1.2.5 Trimix Dive Profile
16.3.1.2.6 Trimix Decompression Tables
16.3.1.2.7 Management and Supervision During Trimix Diving
16.3.1.3 Diving with Helium-Oxygen Mixtures
16.3.1.4 Diving with Pure Oxygen
16.4 MIXED-GAS DIVING EQUIPMENT
16.4.1 Backplate, Harness, and Buoyancy Compensators
16.4.2 Gas Cylinders and Manifolds
16.4.3 Regulators, Hoses and Masks
16.4.4 Depth and Timing Devices
16.4.5 Tools and Emergency Equipment
16.5 MANAGING SPECIAL BREATHING GAS MIXTURES
16.5.1 Gas Purity Issues
16.5.1.1 Air to be Mixed with Oxygen
16.5.1.2 Oxygen Gas Purity
16.5.1.3 Inert Gas Purity
16.6 GAS MIXING
16.6.1 Mixing Trimixes and Heliox
16.6.1.1 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior in Partial Pressure Mixing
16.6.1.2 Use of Air for Mixing Trimix
16.6.1.3 Use of Nitrox for Mixing Trimix
16.6.1.4 Mixing and Stratification
16.7 BREATHING GAS ANALYSIS
16.7.1 Analysis for Gases Other Than Oxygen
16.7.1.1 Colorimetric Tubes
16.7.1.2 Helium Analysis
16.8 CYLINDER IDENTIFICATION AND LABELING

17 DIVING FROM SEAFLOOR HABITATS
17.0 GENERAL
17.1 PRINCIPLES OF SATURATION DIVING
17.2 BREATHING GASES
17.3 LIFE SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS
17.4 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
17.4.1 General Procedures
17.4.2 Emergency Procedures (Habitats)
17.4.3 General Health Practices
17.4.4 Hazardous Materials
17.5 EXCURSION DIVING
17.5.1 Descending Excursions
17.5.2 Repetitive and Continuation Excursions
17.5.3 Ascending Excursions
17.6 DECOMPRESSION AFTER AN AIR OR NITROGEN-OXYGEN SATURATION DIVE
17.6.1 Decompression After Nitrogen-Oxygen or Air Saturation Exposures
17.6.2 Emergency Recompression in the Habitat
17.6.3 Diving After Decompression from Saturation Exposure
17.6.4 Flying After a Saturation Decompression

18 HYPERBARIC CHAMBERS AND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
18.0 GENERAL
18.1 HYPERBARIC CHAMBERS
18.2 TRANSPORTABLE CHAMBERS
18.3 OPERATIONS
18.3.1 Staffing
18.3.1.1 Chamber Supervisor
18.3.1.2 Inside Tender
18.3.1.3 Outside Tender
18.3.1.4 Diving Physician
18.3.2 Checklist
18.3.3 Gas Supply
18.3.4 Chamber Ventilation and Gas Calculations
18.3.5 Built-In-Breathing Systems (BIBS)
18.3.6 Oxygen Analyzers
18.3.7 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Analyzers
18.3.8 Electrical Systems
18.4 CHAMBER MAINTENANCE
18.5 FIRE PREVENTION
18.5.1 Ignition
18.5.2 Combustion
18.5.3 Materials
18.5.4 Management of a Fire
18.5.5 Detection
18.5.6 Extinguishment
18.5.7 Breathing Masks and Escape

19 HAZARDOUS AQUATIC ANIMALS
19.0 GENERAL
19.1 GENERAL MEDICAL PROCEDURES
19.2 ANIMALS THAT ABRADE, LACERATE, OR PUNCTURE
19.2.1 Sea Urchins
19.2.2 Starfish
19.2.3 Rays and Fishes
19.3 ANIMALS THAT STING
19.3.1 Sponges
19.3.2 Hydroids, Jellyfishes, and Sea Anemones
19.3.3 Coral
19.3.4 Marine Worms
19.3.5 Cone Snails (“Shell”)
19.4 ANIMALS THAT BITE
19.4.1 Fishes
19.4.2 Reptiles
19.4.3 Octopi
19.4.4 Other Reptiles
19.4.5 Aquatic Mammals
19.5 ANIMALS THAT SHOCK
19.6 ANIMALS THAT ARE POISONOUS TO EAT
19.6.1 Ciguatera
19.6.2 Scombroid Poisoning
19.6.3 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
19.6.4 Tetrodotoxin “Puffer” Fish Poisoning

20 EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE
20.0 GENERAL
20.1 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE
20.1.1 Medical Equipment and Supplies
20.1.2 Diving Operations Medical (First Aid) Kit
20.1.3 Primary Medical Treatment Kit
20.1.4 Secondary Medical Treatment Kit
20.1.5 Use of the Kits
20.2 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE
20.3 INFECTION CONTROL
20.4 PRIMARY SURVEY – A DETAILED LOOK
20.4.1 Airway Assessment and Management
20.4.2 Managing the Victim with Suspected Spinal Injury
20.4.3 In-Water Artificial Ventilation
20.4.4 Emergency Airway Management and Artificial Ventilation
20.4.5 Circulatory Status Assessment and Management
20.4.5.1 Adult One-Rescuer CPR
20.4.5.2 Early Defibrillation
20.5 STOPPING LIFE-THREATENING BLEEDING
20.6 USE OF SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN
20.7 A COMPLETE VICTIM ASSESSMENT – THE SECONDARY SURVEY
20.7.1 The Head-To-Toe Examination
20.7.2 Taking the Necessary History
20.8 ELECTROCUTION
20.9 WOUNDS
20.10 BURNS
20.11 FRACTURES AND SPRAINS
20.12 POSSIBLE MEDICAL PROBLEMS
20.12.1 Respiratory Emergencies
20.12.1.1 Hyperventilation
20.12.1.2 Inadequate Breathing (Hypoventilation)
20.12.1.3 Obstructive Problems
20.12.2 Cardiovascular Emergencies
20.12.3 Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident)
20.12.4 Convulsions (Seizure)
20.12.5 Diabetic Emergencies
20.13 HEAT ILLNESSES
20.13.1 Heat Exhaustion
20.13.2 Heat Stroke
20.14 HYPOTHERMIA MANAGEMENT
20.15 SEASICKNESS (MOTION SICKNESS)

21 DIVING ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
21.0 GENERAL
21.1 PANIC
21.2 ANTICIPATION OF A PROBLEM
21.2.1 During Training
21.2.2 During Dive Preparation
21.2.3 During Entry and Descent
21.2.4 During the Dive
21.2.5 During Ascent and Exit
21.3 CAUSES OF EMERGENCIES
21.3.1 Loss of Air Supply
21.3.2 Loss or Flooding of Equipment
21.3.3 Fouling and Entanglement
21.3.4 Near Drowning
21.4 ASSESSING A PROBLEM
21.5 RESCUE PROCEDURES
21.5.1 Victim Submerged and Unconscious
21.5.2 Victim Submerged and Conscious
21.5.3 Convulsion in the Water
21.5.4 Victim on the Surface and Unconscious
21.5.5 Victim on the Surface and Conscious
21.5.6 Towing a Victim in the Water
21.5.7 Leaving the Water with a Victim
21.6 ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT
21.6.1 Summoning Aid
21.6.2 On-Site Care of the Diving Casualty
21.6.2.1 General Procedures of Accident Management
21.6.2.2 Immediate Care Protocol
21.6.2.3 Additional Advanced Life Support (ALS)
21.6.2.4 In-Water Recompression Treatment
21.6.2.5 Neurological Assessment and Examination
21.7 EVACUATION BY AIR
21.8 GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCIES
21.9 ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURES

Appendix I DIVE PLANNING
NOAA DIVING OPERATIONS PLAN DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES
DIVE SAFETY AND PLANNING PREDIVE CHECKLIST
DIVE SAFETY AND PLANNING POSTDIVE CHECKLIST
DIVING ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT PLAN

Appendix II FIELD NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
GENERAL
Mental Status
Coordination
Motor
Cranial Nerves
Sensory Function
Deep Tendon Reflexes
TABLE II.1 Extremity Strength Test
TABLE II.2 Reflexes
Dematomal Areas Correlated to Spinal Cord Segment
Neurological Examination Checklist

Appendix III NO-DECOMPRESSION AIR DIVE TABLE
CHART 1 DIVE TIMES WITH END-OF-DIVE GROUP LETTER
CHART 2 SURFACE INTERVAL TIME
CHART 3 REPETITIVE DIVE TIME

Appendix IV U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE
U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE 3
U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE 4
U.S. NAVY DIVE TABLE 5

Appendix V FLOW CHARTS AND TREATMENT TABLES
GENERAL
RECOMPRESSION TREATMENTS
WHEN CHAMBER IS AVAILABLE
FLOW CHART 1
FLOW CHART 2
FLOW CHART 3
FLOW CHART 4
AIR TREATMENT TABLE 1A
AIR TREATMENT TABLE 2A
AIR TREATMENT TABLE 3
TREATMENT TABLE 4
TREATMENT TABLE 5
TREATMENT TABLE 6
TREATMENT TABLE 6A
TREATMENT TABLE 7
TREATMENT TABLE 8
TREATMENT TABLE 9

Appendix VI SATURATION TREATMENT TABLES
SATURATION 5 TREATMENT TABLE
EMERGENCY SATURATION 5 TREATMENT TABLE
SATURATION 6 (CONSERVATIVE) TREATMENT TABLE
EMERGENCY SATURATION 6 TREATMENT TABLE
SATURATION 6-A TREATMENT TABLE

Appendix VII NITROX DIVE TABLES
NOAA NITROX 32 NO-DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE-Abbreviated
NOAA NITROX 36 NO-DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE-Abbreviated
NITROX DIVE PLANNING WORKSHEET
NOAA NITROX 32 NO-DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE-Expanded
No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group
Designation Table for No-Decompression Dive
Residual Nitrogen Time
NOAA NITROX 32 DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE
NOAA NITROX 36 NO-DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE-Expanded
No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group
Designation Table for No-Decompression Dive
Residual Nitrogen Time
NOAA NITROX 36 DECOMPRESSION DIVE TABLE

Appendix VIII DIVING GLOSSARY
VOCABULARY
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
ABBREVIATIONS

Appendix IX REFERENCES

Appendix X INDEX




Pär Ahlgren
Pär Ahlgren 2008-02-15 09:15:03
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Huvudinlägg Recension "NOAA DIVING MANUAL" Pär Ahlgren 2008-02-15 09:09
svara Fullständig innehållsförteckning (lång....)Pär Ahlgren2008-02-15 09:15

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