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Acknowledgements

PREFACE - OXYGEN AND THE DIVER

CHAPTER 1 – ADVERSE EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AT INCREASED PRESSURES
- Pulmonary Toxicity
- Temperature
- Tissue Enzymes
- Oxygen Poisoning in Man
- Lorrain Smith effect
- Cardiovascular System
- Position in Diving in 1942
References

CHAPTER 2 – OXYGEN POISONING STUDIES 1942-5
The Marked Variation of Oxygen Tolerance in Man
- Method
- Results
Oxygen Tolerance in Man under Water at 50 fsw (2.5 ATA)
- Method
The Oxygen Tolerance of Man at Rest in Compressed Air and under Water
- Table 3 – 60 Feet of Sea Water (2.82 ATA) + 90 Feet of Sea Water (3.73 ATA)
Dry/Wet Ratio
Time/Pressure Relationship for Men Breathing Oxygen Underwater, Resting
- Brown
- Harman
- Dickie
- Fraser
- Whittington
The Variation of Oxygen Tolerance of the Individual
- Method
- Results
- Table 5 – Tolerance of a Single Diver at 70 ft. in the Wet over a Period of 90 Days
- Table 6 – Variation of Tolerance of Individual Divers at 50 ft. and 70 ft. Underwater, Rest.
The Oxygen Tolerance of Groups of Men at Various Depths under Water at Rest
- Results
- Coefficient of Variation
- Table 13
- Relation of Tolerance to Pressure
- Table 14
- Variability
Toxicity of Oxygen in the Wet
- Table 16 – Dosages of Oxygen in Atmosphere – Hours to Eliminate 25%, 50% and 75%
Oxygen Toxicity in the Wet and in the Dry
Maximum Non-Toxic Depth when Breathing Oxygen under Water at Rest
- Results
- Table 17-20 – Resting Diveson Oxygen to 50, 40, 35, and 25 fsw
The Effect of Work on Oxygen Tolerance under Water
The Effect of Water Temperature on Oxygen Poisoning
- Results
- Table 25 – Variation of Temperature. All Dives at 50 ft. Time in Mins.
Signs and Symptoms of Oxygen Poisoning
- Convulsive Attacks
- Warning Signs and Symptoms
- Off Effect
After Effects with Non-Convulsant End-Point
Oxygen Poisoning under Water
- Table 26
Symptoms in the Wet with Work
- Table 27
Behaviour of Subject Before Toxic Symptoms Appear
The “Lorrain Smith” Effect in Divers
- Prolonged Dives
Cumulative Effects
Cardiovascular Findings in Oxygen Poisoning
Neurological Findings in Increased Tensions of Oxygen
Neurological Residua of Oxygen Poisoning and Convulsions
- Electroencephalographic Findings
- Table 28
Conclusion
References
Note
Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 3 – FURTHER STUDIES OF OXYGEN POISONING 1946 TO THE PRESENT
Yarbrough, Welham, Brinton and Behnke (1947)
- “Wet/Dry” Difference of Oxygen Tolerance
- Dilution of Oxygen with Nitrogen
- NOTE
- Pressure of Dive
- Donald (1945)
- Yarbrough et al (1947)
- Lanphier and Dwyer, USN (1954)
Further Exercise Studies in the Dry
Prolonged Oxygen Exposure in Immersed, Exercising Divers at 25 & 30 fsw
- Piantadosi, Clinton and Thalmann (1979)
Further Studies at 40 fsw and 25 fsw with Intermissions
- Butler & Thalmann (1984)
Butler and Thalmann (1986)
Oxygen Tolerance Test
General Policy
References

CHAPTER 4 – FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS OF OXYGEN POISONING. PULMONARY OXYGEN TOXICITY. UNDERWATER DECOMPRESSION BREATHING OXYGEN.
Pulmonary Toxicity
Cumulative Damage
The Use of Oxygen in Underwater Decompression
Present Position
References

CHAPTER 5 – THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF OXYGEN-NITROGEN MIXTURES IN DIVING
Position in 1942
Oxygen Bends
Mixture Diving 1945 to Present
Other Types of Counterlung Mixture Breathing Apparatus
- The Constant Ratio Breathing Apparatus (DC55)
- Open Circuit Mixture Breathing
- Open Circuit, Surface Demand, Mixture Breathing
The Outstanding Problem
- The Royal Navy
- The United States Navy
References

CHAPTER 6 – CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYPERBARIC OXYGEN
Shallow Water Black-Out
- Circulatory
- Hypoxia
- Hyperoxia
- Hypocarbia
- Hypercarbia
The Carbon Dioxide Retainers
- Lanphier (1955, (i))
- Table 29 – Ventilation and End-Tidal Pco2 (Group Means) in Exercising Divers at Various Depths and Breathing Various Gas Mixtures. (Data from Lanphier, 1955 (i) & Lanphier, 1958)
- Ventilation
- Respiratory Rhythm
- Resistance
- Hypercarbia
- Controls
Test of End-Tidal PCO2 Sampling Technique
- Table 30 – Rest and Exercise Arterial Blood and End-Tidal PCO2 in mixture Divers Breathing Air at One Atmosphere. (from data of lanphier, 1956)
Identification of "Carbon Dioxide Retainers"
- Table 31 – Ventilatory Response to Increased Inspired CO3 in Air in Five Mixture Divers (See Text) and Normal Subjects
References

CHAPTER 7 – ARE DIVERS REALLY DIFFERENT?
Non-Divers and Divers in Underwater Swimming Study
Goff & Bartlett (1957, (ii))
Ventilatory Response to Exercise in Divers at Atmosphericpressure
Lally, Zechman & Tracy (1974)
Kerem, Melamed & Moran (1980)
- Table 32 – Mean Total Ventilation, Ventilatory Pattern and Alveolar Pco2 at Rest and on Exercise
<b<Exercise at Increased Pressure (Dry), Ventilatory & Endtidal PCO2 Studies
Jarrett (1960)
Broussolle, Bensimon, Michaud and Vegezzi (1972)
- Table 33 – Respiratory data at rest and exercise at 1, 4 & 7 ATA
Bradley, Anthonisen, Vorosmarti and Linaweaver (1971)
Arterial Blood PCO2 Studies during Exercise at Increased Pressure
- Table 35 – Arterial Blood PC02 During Exercise at 1 & 2 ATA Breathing Air & Oxygen (mean ± SD)
Carbon Dioxide Sensitivity in Divers
Schaefer (1955)
Froeb (1960)
Song, Kang, Kang & Hong (1963)
BroussoUe, Bensimon, & Onjon (1969)
Florio and Morrison (1979)
Sherman, Eilander, Shefer & Kerem (1980)
Conclusion
References

APPENDIX 1 – THE ADMIRALTY EXPERIMENTAL DIVING UNIT
Oxygen-nitrogen Mixtures
Underwater Oxygen Swimmers
References

APPENDIX 2
- Table 1 – Oxygen Poisoning at 90 Feet in the Dry in 37 Subjects
- Table 2 – Dives to 50 ft. in the Wet. Limit of Time 30 Mins.
- Table 4 – Times of Tolerance of Five Subjects at Various Depths in the Wet
- Table 7 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 50 ft Resting
- Table 8 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 60 ft Resting
- Table 9 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 70 ft Resting
- Table 10 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 80 ft Resting
- Table 11 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 90 ft Resting
- Table 12 – Tolerance of Divers in the Wet at 100 ft Resting
- Table 15 – Assessment of Individual and Group Variation Logarithm of Diver’s Time Minus Logarithm of Mean Value For Each Depth
- Table 17 – Dives in the Wet on Oxygen at 40 ft without Work
- Table 18 – Dives in the Wet on Oxygen at 35 ft without Work
- Table 19 – Dives in the Wet on Oxygen to 30 ft without Work
- Table 20 – Dives in the Wet on Oxygen to 25 ft without Work
- Table 21 – Oxygen Poisoning at 50 ft. in the Wet with Work
- Table 22 – Oxygen Poisoning at 40 ft. in the Wet with Work
- Table 23 – Oxygen Poisoning at 30 ft. in the Wet with Work
- Table 24 – Oxygen Poisoning at 25 ft. in the Wet with Work

APPENDIX 3 – SYMBOLS
- Primary Symbols
- Suffixes
Depth and Pressure




Pär Ahlgren
Pär Ahlgren 2013-02-22 23:42:34
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